208.Dr Barry Humphreys CBE, founder of BKH Aviation, said that aviation had been “always treated differently from other world trade industries” and was “never part of the WTO” or bilateral free trade agreements: 206.Aeronautical services also allow for wider economic growth in the UK. Brian Pearce, IATA Chief Economist, stated that people used air travel “as a means of doing a business, vacation or access to suppliers or markets” and that the air network was “essentially an infrastructure for the success of users such as the City of London” and “high-tech industries”282.282 We also note that air transport services are an important means for the transport of goods (facilitating thus trade in goods). “About 2.3 million tonnes of freight pass through UK airports each year, with 40% of the UK`s trade with economies outside the EU being transported by air in value terms. In 2014, the total value of tradable goods carried by UK airports exceeded $140 billion, with Heathrow being the largest port in the UK to be transported. 283 These agreements will ensure the continuity of agreements with the United States, Canada, Brazil and Japan in the event of the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. 233.BATA stated that, in such circumstances, the United Kingdom should resort to bilateral air services agreements (which are in the process of creating the internal market) with individual Member States. It is “doubtful that these old agreements are still valid” because they were concluded before the EU extended its aviation powers. They would also be “so obsolete”, 337 Ryanair found that there was “no right of flight in the case of Spain, because the corresponding bilateral agreement was repealed”338 223.BATA feared that EU agreements with third countries after Brexit “could potentially no longer apply to the UK,” which “forced the UK to negotiate a whole series of separate bilateral agreements.” , which came into force in 2008 and allows US and European airlines to fly from anywhere in the EU to the US and vice versa. 238.In the absence of an agreement with the EU, there is no appropriate position for air transport services. Air services are excluded from the WTO and bilateral air services agreements already concluded between the UK and some EU Member States may not be valid, as the EU has broader jurisdiction in this area. It follows that, in order to avoid significant damage to the UK aviation sector, a bilateral air services agreement between the UK and the EU must either be concluded before the UK leaves the EU in 2019, or a transitional regime to allow the UK to continue to participate in the internal aviation market until a comprehensive agreement is reached. 211.Dr Humphreys said that bilateral air transport agreements tended to be “quite restrictive” but that the EU “imposes all these restrictions and creates a single market in which every airline in a Member State can operate freely and cannot be limited under any circumstances”.